Media & Publications

Books

Recent Peer Reviewed Publications

Law Enforcement Education and Training: A Review of Literature and Critical Analysis

Abstract

Background: Recent killings of unarmed Black males murdered on national television has given rise to the successful prosecution of law enforcement officers, as well as new inquiries into officer discretion when applying deadly force. However, few scholars have called into question the methods used to train law enforcement officers, and how academy training prepares law enforcement officers to engage Black males. This research sought to provide a conceptual and cognitive framework for understanding deadly encounters between law enforcement and Black males and provide evidence‑based content and recommendations to law enforcement to improve curricula and officer training. Methodology: Using case study methodology, a conflict between a Black male and a law enforcement officer is examined. Results: The results of the study reveal that current law enforcement training and education do not adequately prepare officers with the psychological tools needed to navigate the adversarial relationship between Black males and members of law enforcement. A combination of past experiences and behavior cues elicit responses from both Black males and law enforcement officers that often result in deadly encounters. Conclusions: There is no standardized curriculum for police officers across the United  States. The majority of law enforcement training programs focus on physical and tactical elements with strength and firearms training at the core. A robust training that prepares officers for what they will experience in the field is warranted.
Beyond PTSD: Black Male Fragility in the Context of Trauma
Abstract
Homicide is the leading cause of death among Black males aged 18–25. By the year 2020, children of color will become the majority of youth in the United States 18 years of age and under. However, despitethetrajectoryofyouthofcolorinAmerica, there is a dearth of research that investigates their experiences. The current study investigates the effects of traumatic experiences, and how they impact the psychological disposition of Black males living in violent communities. In our sample, we identified multiple complex symptoms of trauma, and evidence that suggests that exposure to recurring violence and fears of death materially alters one’s psychological disposition and ability to function. Results of the study add to the literature by extending the understanding of black males beyond traditional typologies and medical classifications of PTSD. The current study challenges the research community to understand the cultural context of Black males and the underlying behaviors that are associated with PTSD symptoms. The current study extends the understanding of hypervigilance by highlighting the impact of the code of the streets while elucidating the significance of internalized stigma.

Dr. Gil Singletary, WLEX Lexington

Dr. Gil Singletary, WLEX Lexington

Dr. Singletary appeared on Atlanta's most popular radio show, WAOK.